A. The Bible as Guide in Life and Liturgy (Sunday Readings)
B. Reflection and Dialogue with Questions of the Day :The Holy Spirit and dialogue with the modern age
A. The Bible as Guide in Life and Liturgy (Sunday Readings)
First Reading(Acts 2:1-11).They were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak. This reading is about events that took place on the day of Pentecost, commonly known today as Whitsunday (that is White Sunday, from the white clothes once worn by newly baptized on this day). Pentecost, of the Acts of the Apostles written in Greek, is a Greek word, pentecoste, meaning “the fiftieth”, the fiftieth day after Easter. It was one of the three Jewish festivals listed in the Bible to be celebrated with special solemnity. The first was Passover (Easter) itself. Pentecost was originally a harvest festival, but later, and very probably by New Testament times, it commemorated the giving of the Law to Moses on the Mountain (Sinai, Horeb), just as Passover commemorated the exodus from Egypt.
The coming of the Holy Spirit on the Apostles and the Church. like the ascension of Christ to the right hand of the Father, is a religious reality, a mystery, that may be expressed as such or recounted as something experienced by the senses. As we see from today’s Gospel (John 20), Jesus is presented as having given the gift of the Holy Spirit to the Apostles (the Eleven) on Easter day itself. Luke in today’s reading from the Acts of the Apostles is recounting the visible beginning of the Church and the Christian mission to the Jewish people and the world.
There are two scenes in today’s reading. The first speaks of the apostles, together with women and Mary the mother of Jesus and his brothers, in prayerful expectation for the coming of the Holy Spirit, but in fear. The coming of the Spirit is accompanied by traditional signs of divine intervention, such as a mighty wind. The tongues of fire represent the power of speech for the new mission. The Spirit would bring internal faith conviction of what Jesus stood for and his enthronement at God’s right hand. Speaking in tongues (glossalalia) was a phenomenon of the early Church.
The second scene takes us outside the upper room, and represents the earliest preaching of the Gospel and the foundation of the Church. Pious Jews from all over the Roman Empire would have been on pilgrimage in Jerusalem for the festival. Luke lists them anti-clockwise: from the East (present-day Iran and Iraq), the north (present-day Turkey), the west, Egypt and the northern African coast, as well as Rome. Luke may have been thinking of this Pentecost as the reversal of the Tower of Babel incident with the confusion of tongues and the scattering of the nations of the world. With the Pentecost events the Church’s mission to the world had begun.
Responsorial Psalm (Psalm 103). Send forth your spirit, Lord, and renew the face of the earth.
Second Reading (1 Corinthians 12:3-7. 12-13). In the one Spirit we were all baptized. The New Testament texts treat in a variety of ways of the essential role of the Holy Spirit in the life of the individual and of the Church as a whole. Among other designations, in John’s Gospel the Holy Spirit is called the Comforter, the Paraclete, the Advocate who gives the internal conviction of faith to believers in the face of opposition and persecution. In other writings the Spirit of Jesus, of the risen and exalted Christ himself, gives the various gifts and charisms of the Church and its members. In today’s reading Paul lists some of these gifts. First is the gift of faith, that of professing that “Jesus is Lord”. This brief early profession of faith confesses that Jesus is risen from the dead, seated at the right hand of the Father and gives the gift of the Holy Spirit to the Church. Faith is the supreme gift of the Holy Spirit. Paul then notes that in the Christian community there are different roles to be fulfilled, tasks to be done, and the Holy Spirit gives a variety of gifts for this purpose. He is at pains to point out that these gifts are not just for personal fulfilment; they are intended for the good of the entire community, of the Church. Here he compares the Christian community to a human body, in which the different members compliment one another. This unity of the community is underlined by Christian baptism, in which all receive the same spirit, irrespective of any difference of social standing, slave as well as free citizens.
Alternative Second Reading (Galatians 5:16-25). The fruit of the Spirit. This reading is aptly chosen for the feast of Pentecost since it speaks of the Holy Spirit in Christian life and of the fruit of the Spirit. It may be well to recall what Paul has written a few verses before the beginning of this text. “For we were called to freedom, brothers and sisters, only do not use your freedom as an opportunity for self-indulgence (literally: “of the flesh”), but through love become slaves of one another”. The entire reading has to do with the opposition within the individual believers of two forces, what Paul calls “the flesh” and the Spirit. By “flesh” selfish desires, self-indulgence, is intended, and the term is often simply translated in this manner. The “flesh”, in this sense, and the “Spirit” are not two parts of the human person, but rather designate two difference orientations of the whole person. Because of the power of “the flesh”, of the drive of self-indulgence, the believer is incapable of carrying out their good intentions. The text ends with Paul’s statement that serving Christ means putting to death (“crucifying”) all self-indulgent passions and desires (“crucifying the flesh with its passions”). He lists the works of self-indulgence (“of the flesh”), beginning with fornication, gross indecency, and sexual irresponsibility. Elsewhere Paul can write that those who are led by the Spirit of God are the children, sons and daughters, of God. What the Spirit brings is quite the opposite of the works of the “flesh”, of self-indulgence. Paul lists nine of these fruits of the Spirit. He had earlier said that Christians are called to freedom, and should not use their freedom as an opportunity for self-indulgence (“the flesh”), but through love to become slaves of one another. This they become by the gifts of the Spirit. The Holy Spirit dwelling within Christians (“living by the Spirit”) should guide their lives, having them live the fruits of the Spirit, in the law of loving one another.
Gospel (John 20:19-23).As the Father sent me, so I am sending you: receive the Holy Spirit. The day in question in this reading is Easter Sunday, the day Jesus rose from the dead. John’s gospel has just recounted before this passage how the risen Lord first appeared to Mary Magdalene. Jesus now appears to his disciples, who are in a room with the doors locked, out of fear of their enemies. Coming through closed doors Jesus shows he has a risen body, but the one in which he was crucified, with the wounds of the cross. This is a solemn moment, with Jesus’ commissioning of the disciples as those chosen by him to continue his work on earth. There is to be continuity between his mission from the Father and their mission as sent by Jesus himself. Jesus breathed on them, and they are, as it were, baptized in the Holy Spirit who will guarantee the continuation of Jesus’ mission. Jesus died so that sins might be forgiven. As he said in the words of the Eucharistic consecration: his blood was shed for the remission of sins. Now, through the gift of the Holy Spirit, his disciples and the Church will continue his saving work in forgiving sin.
Alternative Gospel (John 15:26-27; 16:12-16).The Spirit of truth will lead you to complete truth. This reading has two brief texts from the Farewell Discourse of Jesus on Jesus’ promise of the sending of the Holy Spirit on his disciples. In the first the Holy Spirit is referred to as the Paraclete, the Advocate or Helper, and the Spirit of truth. He is the Advocate, or Helper, in that he will convince the disciples in their hearts and souls of the truth of Jesus’ message, and the Spirit of truth in that he will bring Jesus’ teaching to their minds. The Spirit will come from the Father, Jesus’ Father and will bear witness to the minds and souls of the disciples of the person and mission of Jesus. The disciples will also be witnesses to Jesus as companions of his public life.
The second text reminds the disciples that the person and mission of Jesus is too much for the disciples to understand by their human, limited, intelligences. They will be led into a fuller understanding of the mystery that is Jesus after his glorification and the coming of the Holy Spirit. There is close unity between Jesus, the Father and the Holy Spirit, and the Holy Spirit will speak nothing of his own, but what the Father makes known. The “complete truth” will be the deeper understanding of the person and mission of Jesus; the “things to come” scarcely means mysteries of the end time but possibly the greater understanding of the person of Jesus and his fulfilment of prophecies. The Holy Spirit will glorify Jesus. Jesus spoke of the Father, not of himself. The Holy Spirit will make the disciples, and the Church, aware of Jesus’ mission and work. The Holy Spirit will draw on Jesus’ teaching and person, and thus glorify Jesus by recalling them to the consciences of the disciples.
B. The Bible in Dialogue with Questions of the Day: The Holy Spirit and dialogue with the modern age
In recent decades in Catholic spirituality and liturgy there has been renewed interest in the role of the Holy Spirit in Christian life. This is particularly in evidence in the new Eucharistic prayers. One of them recalls that Christ by rising from the dead has destroyed death and restored life. And that we may live no longer for ourselves but for him, he sent the Holy Spirit from the Father, as his first gift to those who believe, to complete his work on earth and bring us the fullness of grace. Before the words of consecration in the new Eucharistic prayers the celebrant prays to God the Father to send the Holy Spirit on the offerings so that they may become the Body and Blood of Christ, and after the consecration a similar prayer is addressed to the Father to look upon this sacrifice and by his Holy Spirit to gather all who partake of the Eucharist into the one Body of Christ, a living sacrifice of praise—a prayer that the community becomes a living Eucharist..
Central to New Testament and Christian teaching is the unity between God the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit and creation. The death of Christ is evidence of God’s love for the world. The life of the Father is fully in the Son, and Jesus’ wish is that this his own life and love, and that of the Father, be in believers.
For dialogue with our own age this implies that all that is good in the world is from God, loved by God. All the manifold gifts and traits of humanity are from God, even in those who may not advert to this, or even believe in God – all the social concerns, the service of one’s fellows, all those gifts Paul has spoken of in today’s second reading.
Believers are carriers of this message in our own day or in any other. But together with this very positive message, and the call of believers to be witnesses to it, Jesus makes it very clear to his disciples that they should be prepared to bear this message in hostile surroundings and even in persecution. Part of the hostility they are told to be prepared for is indicated as attacks on Jesus’ person and message. They will need strong faith conviction, and this Jesus promises with come through the Holy Spirit, the Advocate for the truth of Jesus’ message, and the Comforter in their trials. The two great commandments according to the First Letter of John are faith and love of the neighbour, faith in Jesus Christ as Son of God against all opposition.
All this can be of significant help to us to day in our dialogue with questions of our age.